Monaco is the second smallest state in the world after the Vatican and is located on the Côte d'Azur, not far from the Italian Riviera and is bordered to the north by the Maritime Alps. The fashionable city and at the same time state used to be a trading place of the Greeks with the name Monoikus and when the Romans built a port on the place, they called it Herculis Monoeci Portus, from which the name Monaco originated. With about 37,000 inhabitants on just under 2 km², Monaco is the most densely populated state of all, of which 78% are foreigners. Apart from Monaco, there are no other cities, the city-state is divided only into the areas Monaco-Ville with the castle, Monte-Carlo with the casino, La Condamine, Fontvieille, Moneghetti with the exotic garden and Larvotto the artificial beach.
Monaco has two ports where luxury yachts from all parts of the world are moored throughout the year. The state is secured by police stations on all entry roads, traffic is monitored by police on every major intersection, and public elevators and underpasses are secured by hundreds of video surveillance cameras. Anyone who wants to visit the city in swimwear is immediately stopped by police officers, and the cathedral is subject to the same regulations as St. Peter's Basilica. The number of tourists per year is 270,000 who stay in 2,508 rooms in the 14 hotels. Monaco is also called the Manhattan on the Mediterranean, because more and more high-rise buildings are being built and new districts are being created by filling in the sea. The city-state levies neither income nor inheritance tax and is therefore highly sought after by the rich. The Oceanographic Museum in the city is world famous, especially since its director was the famous marine explorer Jacques-Yves Cousteau. Another highlight is the Monte-Carlo International Circus Festival, which takes place every year under the patronage of the prince and at which the artists compete for the "Oscar".
Well protected by the Maritime Alps, extreme weather rarely occurs. In summer, the Azores high is weather-dominant, in winter the westerly winds that bring precipitation. In summer it does not get too hot, the thermometer rarely shows more than 30°C and in winter the temperatures rarely reach the 0°C limit. Mostly in January there are average lows of 8°C and often it gets 12°C during the day. With a sunshine duration of 2,583 hours per year and an average temperature of 23°C in July and August, Monaco has a typically mild Mediterranean climate. Little precipitation falls in the months of June to September, an average of 1-2 days per month and most rainy days fall on the months of November, December, January and very many on March (16 days).